The Art Of War Book By Sun Tzu: Each Chapter Reviewed

The Art Of War Book By Sun Tzu: Each Chapter Reviewed

Perhaps no piece of literature is quoted more often than The Art of War book by Sun Tzu.

Possibly the most important exposition on military strategy ever written. Written over 2,000 years ago, The Art of War is still extremely relevant to this day. Written in regard to dealing with military structure and strategy.

The Art of War can be used to gain an advantage in business and sports as well.


art war book sun tzu

Countless leaders have been inspired and followed the teachings from The Art of War. The Art of War is all about studying, strategy and leadership.

The concepts underlie many items we follow. We see them at work, school, and in the advice, we are given. Often times we don’t know the root. Perhaps over multiple sources of learning and inspiration, the owner isn’t aware of the origin as well.

In a great line from what I feel is one of the greatest movies,

“Keep your friends close, and your enemies closer.” – Sun Tzu

Were you aware this was a Sun Tzu quote?

Most people will reference this from Vito Corleone unaware of where the source came from.

Recently I heard Bill Belichick speak on his use of the concepts in The Art of War for strategizing his game plans each week. He spoke about “avoiding what is strong” and “attacking what is weak”. Also, Belichick shared how Sun Tzu taught not to fight two different battles the same. Each week he creates a new game plan for each opponent so that they don’t know what to expect.

“So a military force has no constant formation, water has no constant shape: the ability to gain victory by changing and adapting according to the opponent is called genius.” -Sun Tzu


The Art of War is broken down into 13 chapters.

Personally, I read and reference this book in one of two ways.

  • I’m a random page flipper. 

I just flip open a page randomly and read. Meditating on what i just learned and how I’m going to apply it.

  • I have a purpose in mind that I want to learn or be inspired about.

I have a focus, concern, or task that I need to accomplish and I want to gain insight. Hopefully to inspire me, lift a block, or mentally open a door for me to walk through.
art war book sun tzu

Chapter 1: Laying Plans

The book begins with determining factors that can lead to victory or defeat. By accessing and determining which factors work toward your advantage you can maximize your potential for victory. Understanding yourself and understanding your enemy is a major key to victory.

“Victorious warriors win first and then go to war, while defeated warriors go to war first and then seek to win.” – Sun Tzu


Chapter 2: Waging War

Examines the prudence within winning a war. Decisiveness in working towards a resolution as soon as possible. As a continuation of the first chapter, resources, and their limits need to be understood. Sun Tzu does not only speak about resources in regard to food, clothing, and equipment. He also speaks on the mental state of the soldier, and the effects back home.

We can carry that over into many aspects of our personal life. What is the value in a “victory” that is arduous, burdens our “home“, drains our “resources“, and leaves us mentally prostrated?

“Though we have heard of stupid haste in war, cleverness has never been seen associated with long delays.” -Sun Tzu


Chapter 3: The Plan Of Attack

A lesson on the strength of unity in regard to victory versus relying on the size of the army. Attacking an enemy’s plan or strategy is the most critical step. Then you must separate them from their allies.

Stressed very clearly as the least effective way is to siege a city. A failed siege is used as an example in this chapter.

An emperor with overwhelming force laid siege to a city under command of an enemy general. Apparently a custom at this time, the emperor requested some wine. Instead of wine, the general sent urine instead. This enraged the emperor so much that he attacked the city immediately. After a month of fighting more than half of the Emperor’s army was dead.

A meaningful lesson that struck deeply with me was allowing your enemy a route to escape. It made me think of lessons I’d learned about family conflict and marriage.

You should not seek a victory in an argument over your spouse or family member, just a resolution.

I thought about this and the lesson on allowing a path for escape. Whether right or wrong, I’ve learned myself not to try and corner my wife or loved one. Leave an avenue for escape so that the argument does not intensify, and a resolution can be easier met.

“Build your opponent a golden bridge to retreat across.” – Sun Tzu


Chapter 4: Positioning

Understanding an in-depth realization between offense and defense. Defending and securing your position before attempting to advance.

Like Ju-Jitsu, once you’ve gained a better position focus first on maintaining before advancing. You can’t rush to improve your position once again before securing the one you just achieved.

Also, what I remembered hearing often when I was managing in the corporate world, was “control the controllable.” Sun Tzu speaks to controlling what you can in regard to yourself, troops, and resources. Learn what is beyond your control, the other troops, and the opposing leaders.

I can easily see where this is applied in the workforce or at home.

  • We can’t control the weather, traffic, or a multitude of outside forces.

Yet, we can make the best out of the situation by not letting the uncontrollable control us.

  • We can control our attitude, our plans, and how we are going to adapt and thrive when the uncontrollable confront us.

“The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy.” -Sun Tzu


Chapter 5: Use Of Energy

This chapter focuses on organization and structure. A pyramid of command must be established.

The individual soldiers constitute the base, and the commanding general is at the top. A high emphasis on training and communication needs to be observed. A clear understanding of responsibilities needs to be established. With proper training, communication, and a clear understanding of responsibilities alignment can be created. This allows a large group to work in unison to achieve a common goal.

Sun Tzu refers to an army moving cyclically like the moon and the sun. Different forces must be used in alignment.

Specifically referenced, are “normal” forces requiring less energy and “extraordinary” forces requiring more energy. The alignment and cyclical attacks hopefully confuse the enemy. Believing that “normal” energy is extraordinary and “extraordinary is normal.

Referencing the five notes of music and how the primary colors can create an infinite amount of colors. This construction allows an organized group to be basic in structure but adaptable to an infinite amount of configurations.

“There are not more than five musical notes, yet the combinations of these five give rise to more melodies than can ever be heard.” -Sun Tzu


Chapter 6: Weaknesses and Strengths/Illusion and Reality

In this chapter, Sun Tzu speaks about setting traps. Presenting a situation in which an opponent feels forced to engage. Creating an illusionary path of success for your opponent to manipulate and direct his action.

A recurring theme in The Art of War book, Sun Tzu states to the importance of knowing yourself and your enemy. Managing and maximizing your weaknesses and strengths is critical to being successful.

To adopt you must understand the strength and weaknesses of all parties involved. Being liquid allows you the necessary ability to shape your defense and attack to address the current situation.

What strategy may have worked before or what may work in the future has minimal relevance to what is currently happening.

You should adjust and respond to current conditions if your goal is victory.

“Do not repeat the tactics which have gained you one victory, but let your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances.” -Sun Tzu


Chapter 7: Maneuvering An Army

An emphasis in this chapter is that nothing is more difficult than the art of maneuver. Troop morale is significant to the success of a campaign.

A “day” is used by Sun Tzu in reference to a military campaign. At the beginning of the “day,” spirits are high and begin to diminish towards the evening. Understanding the spirit of yourself and your enemy is crucial in determining the time of the attack.

It is best to attack during the “morning” when the morale spirit is high. The opposite is your enemy, look to engage them in the evening.

This can be related to having difficult conversations, with your team or spouse. Knowing the best time to engage or correspond in regards to the time of “day” for them and yourself.

“A clever general, therefore, avoids an army when its spirit is keen, but attacks when it is sluggish and inclined to return. This is the art of studying moods.” -Sun Tzu


Chapter 8: Variation Of Tactics

This chapter enforces the concept of flexibility and the need to adapt to succeed. There are consistently shifting variables and circumstances that a leader must be able to overcome and navigate his team through. In The Art Of War, many guidelines are laid out for a leader to follow.

Specifically, 5 faulty traits that a leader can possess will lead to failure.

  • Recklessness

Lack of planning or foreseeing results from the action.

  • Cowardice

An inability to take a calculated or measured risk. A weakened character when faced with a challenge.

  • Temper

Easily provoked and deviated from a strategic plan by lack of emotional fortitude.

  • A Delicacy of Honor

Sensitive to shame and public opinion. A leader is unwilling to make an unpopular decision.

  • Over-Solicitude For His Men

A leader is not willing to commit to a dangerous or arduous task when it is tactically necessary.

“These are the five besetting sins of a general, ruinous to the conduct of war. Let them be a subject of meditation.” -Sun Tzu


Chapter 9: The Army on the March

Great emphasis is placed on proper positioning. To have your men in the right place to maximize their efficiency and ability.

As one example, Sun Tzu states to have your army positioned with their right and rear to a bank. As minimal as this positioning may sound, it will strengthen your army immeasurably. Most soldiers are going to wield their swords with their right hand and hold their shields in the left.

Because of this, the left flank of an army is always stronger. Using the natural terrain of an embankment you limit your enemy’s ability to attack your right flank. This will allow you to fight in a more advantageous position.

Anybody who has spent some time managing will probably have heard “aces in their places”. Put your team in the best situation for victory. Move units or individuals into their strengths. Put them into positions that will hinder the enemy from being successful.

“He who exercises no forethought but makes light of his opponents is sure to be captured by them.” -Sun Tzu


Chapter 10: Situational Positioning

This chapter delves into the ground for which a battle takes place. Both the literal ground with which you walk upon and the mental “grounds” that you are fighting the battle. The alignment and strength of the link within the unit is a common theme in The Art of War book, Sun Tzu highlights this once again.

It is noted that a general’s decisions or lack thereof will influence the outcome of a battle as much as the terrain it is fought on. This rings true of his subordinates relative to the units they command.

A capable leader cannot make up for a poorly trained unit, as an effective unit cannot overcome poor leadership.

A great team is constructed with care. Leadership must direct a clearly aligned message. Decisions must be unwavering and resolute.

“When the common soldiers are too strong and their officers too weak, the result is insubordination. When the officers are too strong and the common soldiers too weak, the result is collapse.” -Sun Tzu


Chapter 11: The Nine Situations

In this chapter of The Art of War book, Sun Tzu discusses different challenges and stages you can expect during a campaign. It is critical that a general can first recognize which stage he is on in a campaign. Then adapt and direct his message clearly to his subordinates, then down to the common foot soldier.

Without recognizing the stage of the campaign a general cannot adjust. With no adjustment to his current situation, a general is sure to fail. If a clear direction is not passed from his subordinates down to the units they command, disorganization will follow.


7 of the situations or stages are listed below

For anybody who has had a venture in marketing or especially starting their own business, many or all of these stages are relatable.

  • Dispersive

Campaign within your own territory.

  • Frontier

Shallow encroachment in foreign or enemy territory.

  • Key

Mutually advantageous or neutral land.

  • Focal

The land is surrounded by other states or countries.

  • Serious

Deep inside enemy territory, the land is very rich for plunder but difficult to return from.

  • Encircled

When the army is being attacked by opposing forces and rough terrain.

  • Death

Survival is only through desperation.

“The principle on which to manage an army is to set up one standard of courage which all must reach.” -Sun Tzu


Chapter 12: Attack By Fire

This is a short chapter that discusses the general use of weapons and using the environment as a weapon. Action and reaction need to be understood in combat.

An example is laid out by striking an enemy encampment with fire-tipped arrows. A leader must observe their reaction before committing any assault. If the burning encampment throws the enemy force into panic and disorder, attack immediately. If the enemy remains calm and organized, the best course of action would be to wait.

As often the case in The Art of War book, Sun Tzu not only refers to the literal use of fire but the metaphorical implication as well.

An impulsive and reactionary leader can be the example or correlation you take away. A calm, wise, nurturing leader and his men can provoke and take advantage of his emotional reactions.

When reading and relating The Art of War you must pause on each thought and let them resonate within. Oftentimes, I have moments or interactions in my life that I  that I look back and directly relate to a reading from this book.

“The enlightened ruler lays his plans well ahead; the good general cultivates his resources.” -Sun Tzu


Chapter 13: The Use of Intelligence

The last chapter discusses the attrition of war and the use of spies. Raising an army and marching them long-distance will come at a cost. The mental drain, loss of life, overall cost, and expenditure in a campaign can not be underestimated.

Calculating your attacks, movement, and forward direction must be premeditated. A good football coach studies the game film of the opponent. Analyzing their strengths and weaknesses and understanding where to attack them.

As an equal concern, a coach should know where the opposing team will attack them. A counterattack must be planned beforehand. Action is always faster than reaction!

“What enables the wise sovereign and the good general to strike and conquer, and achieve things beyond the reach of ordinary men, is foreknowledge.” -Sun Tzu

art war book sun tzu

Throughout The Art of War book, Sun Tzu reiterates the importance of long-term goals. The impact of a single event will not be understood until many decisions later.

I try and remember these teachings in my life. How I relate to my superiors and subordinates. My ventures in business and the relationships I have with my students and family.

What teaching from The Art of War have you found yourself reflecting on?


If you have never read The Art of War book, what quotes or teachings in this article resonated with you?


  1. Edwin Bernard

    I first heard of this book many hears ago. Reading the reviews of others I got an overall impression what this book was about. Your article laid out the best summary of The Art of War that I have ever encountered. 

    Since this book is about how to win a war against ones enemies, I beg the question, who is the enemy in our lives? Especially our affiliate marketing lives? The only conclusion I can come to is we are our own enemy. It is our failings like procrastination, lack of planning, not working hard enough and many more of these negative attributes that collectively make up our own worst enemy.

    When looked at from that perspective, the 13 chapters do indeed provide relevant lessons on how to fight these remons and win. I find it humbling that Sun Tzu over 2000 years ago came up with these ideas. IF he was living today I feel his mind would be blown away to see that his lessons have broadened to help countless others who in no way are involved with fighting a traditional war. 

    Thanks for sharing this amazing book. 


    1. Lee Goupil

      Great introspecting Edwin! 

      I can see the point you are making too. 

      When I translate these teachings in a practical way I can use them in life, I don’t always look at “enemy” in the literal sense. 

      The example I gave about building a bridge for an enemy’s retreat I used for conflict with my family or loved ones. 

      No matter how close we are to our loved ones we’ll have disagreements. 

      I allow them an easy way out and hopefully they do the same for me. 

      The quickest path to a resolution! 

      Also, positioning your troops to be at the most advantageous position I’ve used for work. 

      During slow times I would train people at positions they were less skilled in, they would change roles during the rush as  I had already communicated where everybody was to go. 

      “Aces in their places” 

  2. Parveen

    Hey Lee Goupil, You reminded each chapter again. I found this book in March 2018. I read many chapters but not in regular basis. Now from your post I think I have to read it again. There are lots of valuable information. I will use that information to grow my business. First I go for chapter 5 Use of Energy and read completely. 

    Thank you for providing value to Art of war book.


  3. MrBiizy

    Hello Lee. Thank you for sharing this book, The Art of War by Sun Tzu. This is my first time to read about this book; as a matter of fact, I got attracted by the title of the book “The Art of War” and seeing that the author has a Chinese name is another thing that captured my attention.

    I’m intrigued to know that The Art of War is all about studying, strategy and leadership! and that quote sounds amazing: “Keep your friends close, and your enemies closer.” – Sun Tzu.

    I have never been this caught up by a book before but this book caught my full attention haven known some quotes from it and seeing well known personalities following the teachings of the book; I will certainly get this book in order to take an inside look if it. After all it’s very affordable.

  4. Alblue

    Thank you so much for explaining the content of this book. I heard Sun Tzu mentioned so many times in fantasy literature or during conversation with my friends, but I never get a chance to check his book. I remember the quote about ‘Keeping your enemy closer’ mentioned so many times in many books and animes, never thought it was originally from Sun Tzu. I now can understand how relevant his art or war to this modern day. Thanks again

    1. Lee Goupil

      Thank you for reading. 

      I really wanted to provide and in depth review of the book for people who haven’t read it and also open up a discussion for those that have.  

      The more you learn about this book, the more influence you will see all around you. 

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